However, lower than optimal grain plumpness and higher than desired protein levels have been reported in areas of Idaho, Montana and North Dakota. Deoxynivalenol (DON), mold and preharvest sprouting have been observed in some later crops in North Dakota.
Thin grain will absorb water and modify at a faster rate than plump grain. In samples with a wide distribution in kernel plumpness, maltsters first may grade the barley into a number of size fractions and malt them separately. Grading is required more frequently with six-rowed barley than with two-rowed, but can be used to achieve better uniformity in the final malt. Protein also affects the rate of water uptake and speed of modification. For this reason, maltsters will segregate shipments by protein content and malt them separately.
Fruit quality is a complex parameter that is influenced by the synthesis and action of hormones. The metabolism of sugars and acids is also responsible for the rate of ripening. A small number of researchers have focused on the rapid and non-destructive testing of fruit quality. For example, Zhang et al. (2017) proposed a quadratic polynomial regression model for the assessment of the maturity of peaches based on near-infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrated a high correlation coefficient between fruit firmness and the index of absorbance difference (IAD). Furthermore, Misron et al. (2017) used a resonant frequency technique to identify the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches; they investigated the resonance frequency of the air coil and tested samples of fresh oil palm fruit bunches. Moreover, researchers have investigated the use of different objective methods to evaluate the internal quality of strawberry; however, the non-destructive and low-cost assessment of the external quality of strawberry (e.g., size and plumpness) is still a challenge due to the unique shape and changing appearance of this fruit.
Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH) populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF), Commander x WI4304 (CW), and Fleet x WI4304 (FW) developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.
Material and methods: Photographs were taken of the faces of 112 Korean women of different ages (18-80 years) under standardized conditions. These photographs allowed to focus and define 19 facial signs, which were then graded by 15 experts and dermatologists, using standardized scales provided by a reference Skin Aging Atlas. The facial signs were dispatched into 5 clusters, namely Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, Pigmentation disorders, Vascular disorders, and Cheek skin pores. A naïve panel, composed of 92 Korean women, of similar age range were asked, when viewing full-face photographs, to: (a) attribute on a 0-10 scale their perception of the skin plumpness (ie supple/hydrated/nourished) and (b) estimate the age of the subject.
Results: With the exception of Vascular disorders, the severity of all 4 clusters increased with age, although at different rates. The Wrinkles/Texture or Ptosis/Sagging showed a rather regular progression. Although perceived ages and real ages were found highly correlated, half of the subjects were judged older by 2-12 years. The facial signs/clusters were significantly correlated with perceived age, with the exceptions of vascular disorders, size of pigmentary spots and cheek skin pores. The weights in perceived ages of Wrinkles/Texture and Ptosis/Sagging represent 37% each and Pigmentation disorders at 26%. Skin plumpness was logically found significantly anti-correlated with perceived age. If, surprisingly, Vascular disorders were found not impacting the plumpness aspect, Cheek skin pores presented a clear influence.
Conclusion: Within facial clinical clusters, Wrinkles/Texture, Ptosis/Sagging, and Pigmentation disorders are major factors in the assessment of perceived age in Korean women. The perception of a decreased skin plumpness is significantly associated with increased perceived age.
Our lips are teeming with collagen and elastin in our youth. These naturally-occurring proteins maintain a firm and healthy structure, preventing wrinkles and providing natural plumpness to our lips. As we age, the decreased production of new collagen and elastin molecules make lips appear thinner. They lose the vital subdermal structure needed to remain full and plump.
Have your lips already lost their plumpness? There are lipsticks and colors to enhance your lips to counter these changes, but there are also fillers you can use for that purpose. There are a number of Juvederm products (Vollure, Volbella, Juvederm Ultra) that are straightforward and affordable solutions to control volume loss in your lips, fill in fine lines, and redefine the profile in the lower portion of your face. They are quick solutions performed in a short time, yielding a satisfactory and long-lasting result.
As you age, your lips can naturally begin to lose plumpness and structure. Restylane Kysse injectable fillers are designed to provide a more natural-looking shape and fuller structure to thinning lips.
With the exception of suckling kids (milk fed Easter or "hothouse" kids) where plumpness and little indication of rumen development are probably the most sought after traits, slaughter goats should be graded according to the USDA voluntary live goat standards outlined below.
Select 1 Goats possessing minimum qualifications are moderately thickly muscled throughout. The back and loin are moderately wide and shoulders and hips are moderately neat and blend smoothly into the body. There is a slight fullness or plumpness over the rib, loin, rump and legs that contributes to a somewhat rounded and moderately refined appearance.
Platelet-rich plasma therapy is a popular option to achieve plump skin as an alternative to botox or dermal fillers. Also known as a vampire facial, it works by using your own blood platelets to stimulate new cell growth. The blood is injected into your face with small needles and increases the production of collagen and elastin, which improves plumpness, skin texture and reduces the appearance of fine lines.
The objective of this study was to determine the morphology mechanism of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and ratio on lodging resistance through analying its effects among lodging index (LI), lodging-related morphological traits and physical strength in basal internodes by comparing japonica and indica super rice cultivars. Field experiments, with three nitrogen levels (0, 150 and 300 kg ha-1) and two ratios of basal to topdressing (8:2 and 5:5) with two super rice cultivars (Yliangyou 2 and Wuyunjing 23), were conducted in the Baolin Farm, Danyang Country, Jiangsu Province, China, in 2011 and 2012. Effects of N fertilizer rates and ratios on morphology of whole plant, morphology traits in basal internodes and culm's physical strength parameters were investigated at 20 d after full heading stage. LI of Yliangyou 2 was significant greater than that of Wuyunjing 23 due to larger bending moment by whole plant (WP) with higher plant height and gravity center height. With higher volume of N fertilizer, LI of two super rice cultivars was increased conspicuously. However, no significant effect was detected with increase of panicle fertilizer ratio. The size of breaking strength (M) in basal internodes was the key factor determining LI among N fertilizer treatments. Correlation analysis revealed that M value was positively related bending stress (BS) of Wuyunjing 23 and section modulus (Z) of Yliangyou 2, respectively. The higher N fertilizer levels induced reduction of BS of Wuyunjing 23 due to weak culm and leaf sheath plumpness status and reduced Z of Yliangyou 2 owning to small diameter and culm wall thickness, consequently, influencing their M indirectly. These results suggested that breaking strength was the key factor influencing LI with increase of N fertilizer levels. However, the lodging-related morphology mechanism was different with genotypes. Culm wall thickness and diameter in basal internodes of indica super rice and culm and leaf sheath plumpness status of japonica super rice influenced breaking strength, as well as lodging index, respectively. 2014 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
The genetic basis of agronomic traits determining adaptation to specific production conditions is a key factor for the improvement of crops, including malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The aim of this study was to determine the genome-wide genetic components associated with agronomic phenotypes of local and global significance in a population of 76 barley genotypes that have been introduced into Uruguay in different chronological periods. The phenotypic database was obtained from five field experiments, planted in 2 years and in two locations, where a total of 13 agronomic traits were determined. The population was genotyped with 1,033 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found a total of 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a combined analysis using all datasets and 79 QTL if we considered all the trait/experiment combinations analyzed. The highest concentration of QTL was detected on chromosomes 2H and 4H. Most QTL were detected for grain plumpness and weight. Two linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks associated with a large number of traits were detected on 2HS. The largest LD block was composed of three haplotypes, possibly derived from three ancestors of different geographical origin. We also detected three genomic regions in different chromosomes (2H, 5H and 7H) in LD between them, associated with agronomic traits. This study provides a contribution to the understanding of the genetics of barley adaptation in the southern cone of South America. Our results showed that elite varieties have favorable alleles at different QTL, indicating that gains can be made through plant breeding. 041b061a72